By exploiting a vulnerability. By modifying hardware components of a Cisco IOS device. By a combination of some or all of the preceding methods. Potential Attack Methods To install malware in Cisco IOS Software, attackers may try to use one of the methods described in this section. Cisco IOS Software implements several techniques, including the use of safe coding libraries, Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR), digitally signed software, and Cisco Secure Boot to garrisoon protect against memory and code manipulation and provide assurances of authenticity.